(P098)

Human rights and development: challenges and opportunities (Commission on Human Rights)

Location 304
Date and Start Time 17 May, 2014 at 08:30

Convenor

Anjali Kurane (Savitribai Phule Pune University (Formerly University of Pune)) email
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Short Abstract

Human rights & development continue to echo as a separate advancement. This panel investigates challenges & opportunities that integrate human rights into development, and overall lack of policy consistency, with reference to excluded & underdeveloped from an Anthropological perspective.

Long Abstract

The relationship between human rights and development is debatably defined more by its differences and separate than by its points of connection. This panel deal with the boundary of human rights & development, focusing on the integration of human rights into development, and the difference of dialogue and overall lack of policy coherence, & policy frameworks. It aims to explore the uneven identification of human rights in the process of development, mainly those that are directly affected by development processes and outcomes. Therefore, it sets out the issues of the policy questions to invite further exploration of the opportunities human rights discourse and their future application in development.

Poverty remaining as people are excluded, face discrimination; there's a lack of access to basic services. Poverty is violating a whole range of their rights. The poorest, disadvantaged and marginalised groups are being let down. Violations of human rights occur in the name of religion, race, creed, caste, colour, sex, religion. A deeper understanding of people's rights is needed, with economic, social and cultural rights given equal weight to political and civil rights.

So human rights have always been to attain excluded and backward communities and women. There is a crucial link between rights of violations & poverty, exclusion, vulnerability.

The panel would try to understand the human rights violation with reference to excluded and backward communities & explore measures to be developed by the policy makers for integration of the importance of human rights for development.

This panel is closed to new paper proposals.

Papers

Human Rights Commission: Indian scenario

Author: Vislawath Jagadeesh (Karnatak Arts College of Karnatak University, Dharwad)  email

Short Abstract

India is one of the few countries that protect human rights through their Constitution. The civil and political rights guaranteed as fundamental rights are enforceable through the courts of law.

Long Abstract

India, being aware of the growing need to protect human rights, to join the international community in its effort to protect human rights, has acceded to various international instruments, chief among them are the Covenant on Civil and political Rights and Covenant on Economic and social Rights, 1966.

Due to growing concern in the country and abroad, having regard to the changing social realities and emerging trends in the nature of crime and violence, to bring greater accountability and transparency in the administration of justice, the Government of India in 1993 passed the protection of Human Rights Act, which came into force on January 8, 1994. This protection of Human Rights Act, 1993, provide for setting up of National Human Rights Commission and State Human Rights Commissions.

Therefore, this paper gives us an clear understanding of the Nature and substance on meaning of Human Rights Under the Act, functions and powers of the commission, etc.

Socio-economic condition and human right issues of the Chain: a depressed community of West Bengal, India

Author: Bijoy Kumar Sarkar (University of North Bengal)  email

Short Abstract

Human rights and development are not separate challenges as deemed but are inexorably linked. This paper seeks to highlight the socioeconomic condition of the Chain, a depressed community of east India with special reference to their plights and explore the factors from a human rights perspective.

Long Abstract

In recent years, human rights and development have been converging in respect of the depressed people in the world. This may also apply to the Chain, an indigenous and depressed community of eastern India, who speak their own language. The Chain is a little-known community in West Bengal. Surprisingly, they have received almost no attention from the social scientists and the social activists, though their over-all conditions have increasingly deteriorated, causing a sense of helplessness and resentment in them. Being a traditional farming community in the riverside area and averse to trade and business, the Chains are now divested of material resources. They face discrimination, poverty, poor health, unemployment, unsafe drinking water, open defecation, illiteracy, early marriage, domestic violence, inferiority complex, etc. No provision for education in their own language has added to their lagging behind in education, simultaneously endangering their language and culture too. This paper attempts to highlight socioeconomic conditions of the Chain with special reference to their plights, find out the factors responsible and draw the attention of the social scientists, community organizations and the administration. It analyzes this issue from a human rights perspective.This paper has been prepared on the data collected from field work, secondary literature, documented data and experience gathered as a member of the community and built up on corroboration and cross-checking of these materials in consultation with knowledgeable and scholarly people.

Human rights of women: an Indian perspective

Author: Meenakshi Meena (JNV University)  email

Short Abstract

The paper is deciphering the magnitude of human rights violation against women. Today, in the 21st century and after 65 years of independence, there exists a wide gap between theory and practice regarding the human rights of women in Indian society.

Long Abstract

Human rights of women are inalienable, integral and indivisible part of Universal human rights. The human rights of women are a matter of great concern. Human rights belong to everyone, yet horrific violations occur on a daily basis against women in homes, workplaces, communities and civic institutions.

The paper is deciphering the magnitude of human rights violation against women. The increasing incidents of female foeticide and infanticide, sexual assault, rape, health problems, discrimination in every field have been one of the important concerns of the women's human rights in India.

Today, in 21st century and after 65 years of independence, various conventions and human rights organizations committed to secure equal rights for women, but there exists a wide gap between theory and practice in the Indian society.

Situating Dalit women within human rights and development: Indian scenario

Author: Anjali Kurane (Savitribai Phule Pune University (Formerly University of Pune))  email

Short Abstract

Dalit women are dependently placed at the end of India's caste, class and gender hierarchies and experience prevalent caste oppression, discrimination, exploitation, marginalization and violence. This paper critically analyse the situation of Dalit women within human rights and development.

Long Abstract

The Dalit women constitute about 80 million a distinct social category of the Indian population. Socio-economic, cultural, political inequalities between castes and gender led to violence agonists the Dalit women. They face of severe caste and gender inhuman violence in the form of verbal abuse, to physical beating, physical violence, sexual exploitation sexual harassment, rape ,gang rape, rape of minor girls, murder and attempt to murder, battering and acid attack, social boycott, murder of husbands and sons, kidnap and abduction, forced prostitution, and desertion, dehumanising social and occupational practices like manual scavenging and devadasi system forced on Dalit women.

Apart from the constitutional and legal measures, policy initiatives, even after the six decades of India's independence Dalit women remained at the bottom of the social hierarchy and face the challenge of accessing their human right in the process of Development. Caste based discrimination led millions of Dalit women to systematic human rights violation , impertinence and humiliation, inhumane living conditions, placed them on the bottom rung in all development indicators .This paper critically exploring the issues of Dalit Women's human rights, dignity and development in Indian society.

The Devdasi practice: violation of human rights of Dalit girls

Author: Jyoti Shetty (Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Research and Training Institute)  email

Short Abstract

The ancient Devdasi practice which offers/marries girls to a deity of worship in Hindu temples leading to forced prostitution is a gross violation of human rights. Despite laws for its prevention, this practice still continues. The present study will focus on different aspects of this tradition.

Long Abstract

The 'devdasi' system has been the object of several studies and is quite controversial. Past authors associated 'devdasi' with power and prestige, others, more lately, with degradation and prostitution. Traditionally, in addition to their religious duties, the devdasis were a community of artists. They sang and danced in temples to please the gods, a task which was highly regarded. ( Amrit Srinivasan, 1985, Gathia, 1999).

The efficacy of the devdasi as a woman and dancer began to converge with the efficacy of the temple as a living center of religious and social life - political, commercial and cultural. (Singh 1997, O'Neil, 2004).

Realizing the disadvantages of Devdasi practice, the Government of Maharashtra passed the Bombay Devdasis Prevention act, 1954, Maharashtra Devdasi System.(Abolition) Act. 2005. However, the practice lives on in the states mainly in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Districts bordering Maharashtra and Karnataka are known as the "Devdasi belt"

According to National commission on women of India, around 2,50,000 Dalit girls are dedicated as Devdasis to Yellamma and Khondaba temples in Maharashtra-karnataka border, a gross miscarriage of justice and violation of human rights of all these girls, dedicated as sexual slaves in the name of religion.

This article explores the 'devdasi' practice, its evolution over time, analyses the social-economic conditions and various issues of the present 'devadasis', by preparing 20 full profiles of the Devdasi women from Pune and Sholapur district and ends with some suggestions for their improvement.

Shifting cultivation in the backdrop of the Forest Right Act: violation of the human rights of the Khond tribe

Author: Madhulika Sahoo (National Institute of Technology)  email

Short Abstract

The current research paper tries to highlight the level of dependency of tribals on the shifting cultivation in Kandhmal, understanding the forest right claims and the violation of the human rights of the Khond tribals.

Key words- Podu, Kandhamla, JBIC, CAMPA

Long Abstract

Shifting cultivation is one of the oldest traditional farming and believes it to occupy distinct place in the tribal economy.It is also estimated to support the livelihoods of 300-500 million people worldwide(Brady, 1996).However,the dominant Indian perspective on shifting cultivation is that it destroys forests and leads to ecological degradation(Dhebar Commission, 1961; GOI, 1988; GOI, 1997).

The conceptual separation between forests and agriculture,rooted in the western paradigm of nature versus culture and in the origins of modern agricultural systems,has meant that policymakers have been unable to visualize shifting cultivation as part of an integrated livelihood and landscape system. In the context of North East India, this perspective is undergoing change based on recent research and increasingly policy makers are talking about'improving' as opposed to 'replacing' shifting cultivation (GOI, 2002).However, in other parts of India, shifting cultivation continues to be perceived negatively and the government continues to pursue the policy of "replacing" shifting cultivation. The customary rights of the tribals are now targeted by stopping the hill tribes from practicing shifting cultivation and providing various rehabilitation schemes. In many places it is seen that the shifting cultivation lands has been demarcated for Reserve Forest.

In Odisha, plantation under JBIC and CAMPA projects has been done on shifting cultivation areas.In Kandhamal forcible plantation of eucalyptus, teak and other commercial plantations have been done on the shifting cultivation lands claimed under Forest Right Act. This has literally driven the tribals with no livelihood options.

Promoting ancestral identity and dissolving ethnic hatred: study of Xinjiang

Authors: Xinyan Chi (Nanjing Normal University)  email
Jia Wang (Shenzhen Bailu Travel Agency)  email

Short Abstract

The paper focuses on the violent terrorist activities with religious consciousness in Xinjiang, China, and tries to use religious classification method to establish common ancestors instead of color classification, which will play a positive role among humanity, affinity and dissolving hatred.

Long Abstract

The violent terrorist activities have been deteriorating in Xinjiang. Some groups of Uyghur claim they are descendants of White with academic viewpoint from white mummies of 3800 years unearthed in Xiaohe Cemetery, then question sovereignty of Xinjiang, and boast they are enemies of china in 3000 years.

Historical recorded that the grandson of Emperor Huang, An, was granted in west. He led Ruo people to west, and his descendants established Parthian. The descendant of Emperor Huang, Yu, claimed to be Emperor in Central State, and built priest groups of white Ruo. Above activities were confirmed by archaeology, which could be regarded as the Central State (China) took sovereignty over Xinjiang in about 2500 BC to 2000 BC.

The paper tries to find out blood relationship between Han and Uyghurs with religion and culture analysis, to recognize common ancestors in religion, to marginalize racial differences, finally to reach psychological identification. The immediate measures might be: 1)to improve national ethnic policy; 2)to protect the ruins of white ancestors and develop root-tracing tourism; 3)to organize periodic forums and open academic taboo; 4)to include in compulsory education.

White people in Xiaohe cemetery were Ruo people, whose mother's ethnic group was white descendants of Shushan, father's ethnic group was originated from Emperor Huang. Totems of birds and mice, wooden penises of Fuxi, 7-day sacrifices, 12 earthly branches and 12 zodiac, white stone gods, cattle gods, disymmetric snakes, were unearthed there, which were also civilization elements of Xia Dynasty.

Women In Iran

Author: Robabeh Sedighi (University of Pune)  email

Short Abstract

Women are factors and targets of any development as half of human resources and half of the world's population and are effective leverage for progress of socioeconomic development goals.

Long Abstract

Women in our Iranian society have tried to play social and economic role along with their husbands in different forms. Especially structure of women's work in rural districts of the country and their high contribution to production of economic products are regarded as undeniable example and sign of their direct and effective attendance in economic activities flow in Iran society. Due to primary and simple employment conditions in the past social and economic systems and lack of present complex situation, there has not been subject of women's employment in Iran society as problematic case with fragile social and cultural results and arrangements. In many cases, legal results and conditions and more importantly manner of common participation of woman and man in a group of cultural patterns prevent from some problems which have been observed in recent periods.

Economic and social changes of new periods are origin of many problems which had effect on family and its health and stability and in the next stages and caused different functions in process of social and political affairs of the country of which consequences have had effect on many issues in family and society.

This panel is closed to new paper proposals.