Evolving humanity, emerging worlds
Manchester, UK; 5th-10th August 2013
Linking anthropology and tourism
Location University Place 6.205
Date and Start Time 06 Aug, 2013 at 09:00
The panel revolves around the strong relationship between the two disciplines-Anthropology and Tourism and how this may be a major aid for all intervention and development programs.
Both Anthropology and Tourism requires an independent understanding of cultures of different societies but with a different perspective. Where anthropological studies reveal various aspects of the culture of a place, tourism on the other hand is closely concerned with cultural intermixing of the people of the two different places. Both the outcome of such cross cultural contacts are the important issues of today. Thus the panel bring forth the strong connections between the two disciplines and their role in the process of development.
This panel is closed to new paper proposals.
Between religious practices and a folklore for tourists: the worship of whale in South Vietnam
Every 4 years thousands of pilgrims converge to the fishermen villages on the Central Vietnamese coastal shores to worship the whale skeletons in small temples. The whale festival brings thousands of people set off on a pilgrimage to participate in the celebration. This cult is an old belief coming from Champa, a Kingdom existed on central Vietnam. In the past, Vietnamese emperors used to give many royal decrees to the whales beached on the coastal shores. Nowadays, this cult is supported by people's committees as one of the many ways to control fishing villages.
Beyond all beliefs and religious practices, the financial impacts of this cult are becoming higher after Renovation, 1986. Coming from Mekong Delta rice plantations searching for rain or from Southern cities expecting for luck, they join the fishermen in the 3 days non-stop prayers.
Travel agencies are now promoting this kind of cultural tourism as a part of Vietnamese folklore. The whale cult tourism generates a fruitful development for fishing villages but the original cult is now distorted with those coming from a structured and profane existence to search for sacred atmosphere of the pilgrimage site. The whale cult perfectly illustrated the notion of cultural intermixture that characterizes this area located on main line of communication. Can this sort of tourism be considered as a reflection of society spiritual needs?
Anthropology, Tourism and the Island Sumba. On Economic and Cultural Barriers in the Process of Development.
This paper examines the relationship between hosts and guests on the island Sumba, Eastern Indonesia and discusses the linking of the two disciplines - anthropology and tourism - and how they might contribute to the process of development.
The western district of Sumba, a remote island in Eastern Indonesia, has become a destination for ethnic tourism. This study explores the mutually mistrustful relation of hosts and guests. Both groups perceive the other as exotic and violent. The language barrier, Sumbanese rumours about dangerous the "bule" (Caucasians) and tourists' preconceptions even deepen this setting. In the process of development the relationship between hosts and guests will have to change. This can be achieved through deeper awareness from both sides and mainly by incorporating the Sumbanese into the chain of profit from tourism. Nevertheless, to do that the cultural barriers have to be defined and taken into consideration. This case study aims to point out the establishment of cooperation between these two interconnected fields - anthropology and tourism - it is inevitable to prevent and avoid misunderstandings and conflicts in this area. Without it any development programs cannot continue successfully.
Impact of Tourism on Myths and Cosmology of Tibetan Bhutias of Darjeeling
The present study is on the Tibetan Bhutias who live in the areas of Darjeeling, west Bengal, India. These people are very much exposed to the tourism sector as the area under study is one of the tourist destinations.The changes which have come in their local beliefs has touched their interpretations regarding cosmology and myths.
Tourism is a growing industry in the NEFA states today. While, recognizing a tribal culture it is important to recognize the importance of their mythical values. This is because the mythical and cosmologic values of a culture are an important part of it. Among the Tibetan Bhutias the tourism has been a great source of change and the changes thus brought have also great impact on the myths and cosmologies too. The tribal people have come in contact of the western thoughts and the scientific rational thoughts. Although the elder Tibetan Bhutias still believe in same age old thoughts and myths and cosmologic values yet the new generation has shown inclination towards the scientific thoughts and rational beliefs. They think that mythology has a different stand but in present times, science and rationalism is more important. The commercialization of the goods have brought lag between the thought and action of myth and cosmology.
Arts and Crafts of Bhutias of Drajeeling: avenues for tourism development
The Bhutias of Darjeeling has a great wealth in terms of their traditional arts and crafts. The present study is an outcome of an extensive fieldwork conducted on the bhutias. The study reveals that a major shift is visible in their traditinal pattern of art and craft.
This study aims at exploration of tourism, which acts to promote local economy, socio-cultural changes and life style of the Tibetan Bhutias. The purpose of this study is to explore the reasons for which the foreign and domestic tourists visit the destination for recreational and leisure purposes and also to gain experience from art, culture, lifestyle etc, which in turn create a tremendous impact on tribal economy. Rural tourism includes specific services which are comprised of different social systems and which has the focus on complementary elements of regional product. In a pilot survey, it has been observed that tourism has also improved its civic amenities like communication, sanitations, transport facilities and standard of living for the people in general and has commercialized the art and craft forms of the Tibetan Bhutias. This study emphasizes on the concept of tourism, different issues, challenges related to tourism as well as revaluing the effectiveness of development of socio economic condition of the under developed regions.
Varanasi : The Carrier Of Ancient Vedic Literatures
Varanasi, the culture capitol of India has the history,perhaps,as old as Indian civilization itself. Varanasi has been a seat of learning since ages. It is associated with promotion of spiritualism, mysticism, yoga, Sanskrit and Hindi language. Millions of tourists flock to Varanasi to learn the facts of life, our origin, the cycle of birth and rebirth.
Kashi or Varanasi is one of the most ancient, famous and holiest of the holy hindu pilgrim centres. It is situated between two tributaries of the holy river Ganga, Varuna on its northern border and Asi on its southern border. Some believe from here, Varanasi founds the origin of its name. The name Kashi is derived from either its original founder or the dynasty that ruled it.
Varanasi has been a sacred place since ancient times. It is mentioned in the Vedas, Puranas, the epics Ramayana and Mahabharat and also many Buddhist and Jain texts. In ancient India, Kashi was a great centre of education not only for the Hindus but for other religions such as Buddhism and Jainism. Students were taught the Vedas, Upanishads and other schools of philosophy. Geographically, it is close to Sarnath where Buddha delivered his first sermon immediately after his enlightment.
The city of Varanasi is also associated with famous religious personalities such as Panini, Sankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhavachrya and Gorakshanath. Traditionally, Kashi has been a center of Saivism, saivism was practised in ancient India by the Ajivikas, the Pashupathas and many other ancient sects of Dravidian origin.
Today, Varanasi is the most popular city in India for its religious significance. Millions of tourists visit Varanasi to gain knowledge and spiritualism.
Keywords : Vedas, Saivism, Schools Of Philosophy
A piece of history: where tourism meets anthropology in Tyrol. A reflection on Sputz's dissertation and Mitterer's film about tourism, development and adaptation.
The presentation summarizes an anthropological aspect of a research project about the history of tourism science, focusing on two sources from Austrians related to Tyrol. Sputz´s (future perspective) and Mitterer´s (critizicing development of decades) works talk about culture and tourism in 1919 and in 1990.
Austria is one of the most visited countries in world, history of tourism was written there and since 200 years certain regions developed only due to tourism and its consequences. The presentation aims to summarize an anthropological aspect of a international and transdisciplinary research project about the history of tourism science, which is currently being reviewed and reconstructed due to new insights. Anthropological theories and knowledge of tourism science help to understand the Sput´s and Mitterer´s arguments in their publications talking about the same topic and region, but in different times. Sputz, an Austrian geographer, analyzed the tourism potential of the state of Tyrol in 1919 and concluded that the locals need to adapt to the "Fremde" /foreigner´s costumes in order to offer good service and make them come back again. Sputz does not only focus on cultural aspects, which is unique for this period, but also categorizes aspects which are fundamental to develop tourism in general. 80 years later, Felix Mitterer, an Austrian dramaturge, created a series of four films called "Piefke Saga". "Piefke" is a colloquial, slightly negative synonym for a person from Germany, since today as well as in former times, most tourists in Tyrol are from neighboring Germany. The series critically stages Tyrol´s development as a tourism oriented region. The adaption of the locals to the tourist´s costumes and wishes reaches the top when the social structure of a village breaks nearly down by doing everything to bring and keep tourists in the region.
Tourism : Issues And Impact --- A Sociocultural Anthropological Study In A Village Near Digha, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India
Tourism, a global industry, has significance of social change and culture contact. The study explores the integrated profile of tourism and its impact on inhabitants of a village near Digha, the global tourists- spot of West Bengal. It ends with suggestive measures for the planners, policy-makers, administrators under the significance of eco-tourism.
The anthropology of tourism is concerned with the social and cultural nature of tourism and the behaviour of tourists.. The present study, highlights the socio-economic interaction between tourists and local people in the background of the eco-cultural settings of the age-old tourism industry of Digha, at the bank Bay of Bengal. It analyzes the relational networks between the tourists and local peoples along with the villagers under study; the experiences counterpoised to everyday life; an opportunity for employment; a force for socio-cultural change; an emblem and medium of globalization as per objective of the present study. The study, finally aims the integrated domain of the industry and the village life like economy, culture, art, leisure time recreation with complex interaction around tourism. It also ends with some suggestive measures for planners, policy-makers as well as local administrators under the purview of the ubiquitous concept of eco-tourism from applied anthropological perspective.
Rural Tourism-Three cases from North-East India
This paper is an attempt to show the linkage between Anthropology and Tourism.The paper discuss how rural tourism can be strong instrument for development of a place.
Almost all of we know that Majority of Indian Population lived in rural.The economy of the rural population of India is based on agriculture.Indian rural agriculturalist people are of basically three categories:Plough cultivators,Jhum cultivators and Terrace cultivators.In north-east India,in addition to plough cultivators,there are lots of tribal groups depending on Jhum cultivation and few on terrace cultivation.Beside them a few communities are pastoralist.It cannot be said that rural economy of North-East India is a very flourishing,but it can be said as very promising.North-east India is bestowed with God's gift.North-East India is a mosaic of geographical as well as cultural diversities.Ecology is an important component for development of tourism and eight states of North-East India are fortunate enough to have heavenly beauty both from scenic as well as cultural.Rural tourism can be flourished in North-East India from eco-tourism as well as cultural tourism where home stay will be a main component.The paper will be enriched with some examples of communities participation.
Tourism: Catalyst for sustaining handicrafts in India
Shopping enhances the experience of the tourist at the destination. Hence this paper focuses on impact of tourism development on the handicrafts of India.
Shopping enhances the experience of the tourist at the destination. It involves purchase of food and drink, souvenir and handicrafts. India is a shopper's paradise with every state offering unique and indigenous handicrafts. According to Survey of Foreign Tourists' Expenses on Handicrafts by Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India total expenditure on handicrafts by all the foreign tourists has been estimated at Rs. 29,851.54 million in 2001, which constitutes about 18% of the total value of production of handicraft items in India in 2001-02. This also forms approximately 44% of the total handicrafts exports (excluding hand knotted carpets) from India during the year 2001-02.
Due to modernization and industrialization the survival of handicrafts is inextricably linked to tourism. This paper focuses on the relationship between tourism and handicraft production, and how the development of tourism has catalyzed the conservation of dying handicrafts in India and thus helping poverty alleviation and economy diversification in rural areas of India.
Pilgrimage or Spiritual Tourism: A critical analysis in the context of the Sammakka-Sarakka Jatara- A Tribal festival in Andhrapradesh-India.
My paper is an examination of the distinction between making a pilgrimage and going on a “spiritual tour” in the context of the Sammakka and Sarakka festival. It is often difficult to judge whether one is on a pilgrimage or some kind of a “spiritual tourism” that is becoming more and more popular in the 21st century owing to globalization and related changes. However I intend to examine how this dichotomy is dramatized in this particular instance and to show that the gray area where pilgrimage and tourism converge seems to be the order of the day.
Hundreds of thousands of tribals from across India throng to attend the Sammakka Sarakka Jatara festival celebrated every two years once in Medaram village in the district of Warangal, the state of Andhra Pradesh in the South of the Indian subcontinent. The feast ends with drinks and non-vegetarian dinner. The exchange of culture through the exchange of traditional foods is the remarkable feature of this feast. It is one of the most popular tribal festivals in the world which begins in Maghi Purnima (the full moon day of . February) on every alternate year. The cultural exchange of music and dance to the drums at the feast by tribes of different regions preserves some of the most original of Indian traditions in its essential forms.
Mostly the tribes of India consider the event of the Sammakka Sarakka Jatara as a spiritual and cultural gathering and the place itself as a pilgrim center. The place of pilgrimage is linked to historical events from lives of various gods. The Medaram tribal festival also includes events where the goddesses Sammakka and Sarakka fight with the enemy to save the people and village. Around thirty million tribals and others attend this event every year.
Everybody embarks upon some form of tourism during a pilgrimage in one way or the other. The genuine intentions of the pilgrims are usually unknown.
Tourism influencing lives: A case study of Mawlynnong Village
Mawlynnong, a village in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India is slowly becoming a popular tourist destination due to its location as well as of the distinction of being the cleanest village in India. This paper will explore the role of tourism and tourists in this village and in the lives of the villagers.
Mawlynnong has the distinction of being recognised as the cleanest village in India by the Discover India magazine in 2005. Since then the village has seen a gradual increase in the number of tourists, specially domestic tourists travelling to explore the destination. One of the reasons for the growing popularity of this rural tourism destination could be the indigenous Khasi tribe that forms the village population. This tribe follows a matrilineal society, wherein the family is trace by the surname of the wife and the property of the family is passed on to the youngest daughter of the family; a concept, domestic tourists are not very familiar with.
The increasing and continuous interaction between the locals and the tourists are influencing the behavior of both the guests and the hosts. This paper will bring out the changes in the attitude and customs of the local population in the last decade, since tourists and travel industry discovered Mawlynnong, as well as explore the influence of the visit to Mawlynnong on the guests.
This panel is closed to new paper proposals.