Evolving humanity, emerging worlds
Manchester, UK; 5th-10th August 2013
Human security, disadvantaged people and development: the emerging human rights challenges in the era of globalization (IUAES Commission on Human Rights)
Location University Place 3.212
Date and Start Time 07 Aug, 2013 at 09:00
The human security concept has been defined and pursued in different ways by different nation states as a strategy to enable governments to address basic human needs and offset the inequities of globalization, and as a means to provide social safety nets to impoverished, marginalized people.
The concept of 'human security' has initiated the debate - what 'security' means and how to achieve it. The discussion on the disarmament-development nexus that took place in various UN forums contributed in the understanding of human security. Besides, a number of Commissions like the Brandt Commission, the Bruntland Commission and the Commission on Global Governance helped to change the focus of security analysis from national and state security to security of the people.
The varied notions and concepts of human security initiated an interesting debate. Human security calls for a shift of security considering from state security to security of the people. Justice, equality and human dignity are the watch words of human rights discourse and intimately connected with human security. But the inequity of the international economic order has produced unacceptable levels of inequality, both internally and internationally.
Again, the development programmes have benefited some while created disruption and displacement of a large population in many countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Since there is displacement of a large section of population, the access and command over natural resources are affected; the survival and security of the people are also affected. One cannot stop exploitation of natural resources but what one is now looking for is how to achieve sustainable development. This may demand new development strategy with a genuine participatory approach and creating a process of natural resource use which is open, accessible and accountable for the security of the larger population.
This panel is closed to new paper proposals.
Under the shadow of insecurity: a study on the displaced people
Human right is for the sake of Humanity. However, in the wave of new world order and exploitative attitude of a few are violating the fundamental rights of many. Often certain political situation plays a crucial role here. Such an incidence has been discussed here in case of the displaced people of Bangladesh and their continuous struggle related with unorganized occupational sector.
The subject of Human Rights is gaining much importance in the present world scenario. The term actually refers to those elemental rights which any human deserves to have honoured in order to survive, enjoy well being and flourish or fulfill him or herself by virtue of being human. The fundamental attributes of human rights denotes right to equal opportunities for all, right to egalitarian social justice, right to food, shelter, health, leisure, individual dignity, right to equality, right to respect and privacy, right to property and right to life. But today due to exploitative attitude, deprivation and greed of a few are refuting the needs of many. In this regard, along with a number of factors, the issues related with the displacement and refugeeism due to certain political consequences, has emerged as a major social problem. Particularly due to this factor the concerned people have to loss their permanent settlement, stable economic pursuit and they are forced to face severe inconveniences in every aspects of their livelihood. Ultimately the different aspects of their fundamental human rights are being seriously violated. These issues have been observed among the people of an unorganized occupational sector, who were displaced from their earlier settlement of Bangladesh and are struggling for their common minimum livelihood.
Key words: Displacement, Identity crisis, Human Rights.
An Anthropological Perspective towards the Post-globalization Era: The Case of Internally Displaced Persons in East African Pastoral Societies
This study intends to show an anthropological perspective toward the post-globalization era with the ethnographic case study on internally displaced persons (IDPs) in East African Pastoral Societies. The IDPs has created the minute local flow of democratic power, reciprocal distribution, and local peace building effort with ICT against the national neglect to the reckless global flow of corrupted power, smuggling of weapons, and overheating media. I believe those practices of the IDPs have much implications on the anthropological perspective toward the post-globalization era.
In this paper, the post-globalization era can be defined as the period when marginalized communities face the negative impact of neoliberal globalization after the end of ideologies of neoliberalism. The ethnic group A have been devastated by the conflict since 2004 caused by the negative impact of globalization: identity politics of corrupted politician, smuggling of weapons, and unregulated ICT. The death toll amounts to 564 according to my research. However, the conflicts and the IDPs have been ignored both from national and international agencies. Therefore, the IDPs were forced to confront the negative effect of globalization without national and international protection. They constructed the "clustered settlements" as the basis of the local security and mutual aids that work as a "breakwater" to the global reckless flow. The IDPs has created the minute local flow of democratic power, reciprocal distribution, and local peace building effort with ICTs. I believe those practices of the IDPs have much implications on the anthropological perspective toward the post-globalization era.
The Indigenous Peoples' Right to Human Security under International Law.
International law guarantees “human security” for all. The concept includes the right to subsistence resources and economic survival as well as freedom from war and the threat of war.
The concept of "human security," in contemporary international discourse,
means not only protection from war and the threat of war but also the right to economic survival. International law can contribute to human development policy by focusing on economic and social rights as formal guarantees of the law.
Indigenous peoples have the legal, human right to basic subsistence needs including the rights to a livelihood, employment, food, health, good nutrition, education, shelter, and a clean environment. These aforesaid specific rights are recognized by international treaties, conventions, declarations, decisions of international courts and tribunals and some state courts, customary international law, and conventions or declarations of international regional organizations. A critical subject for indigenous peoples is the right to control ancestral lands and their accompanying natural resources. These lands and resources are essential to preserving indigenous culture. For example, forest, water, and agricultural lands provide food, medicine,
nutrition, shelter and livelihood for indigenous families. Article XXVI of the United Nations Declaration of Indigenous Rights (2007) states that "indigenous peoples have the right to the land, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned, occupied and otherwise acquired." The International Labor Organization Convention 169 "Concerning Indigenous Tribal Lands in Independent Countries" (1989) states in Article XV that "the rights of peoples concerned to the natural resources pertaining to their land shall be specifically safeguarded."
Socio-economic Condition, Migration and Trafficking in border villages of West Bengal
Migration and trafficking are depends on certain push pool factors such as not enough jobs, natural disaster, poor economic condition etc. Human trafficking is the illegal trade in human beings for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor: a modern-day form of slavery
Human migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. The movement of populations in modern times has continued under the form of both voluntary migration within one's region, country, or beyond, and involuntary migration (which includes the slave trade, Human traffic in human beings and ethnic cleansing). Forced migration or distressed migration has been a means of social control under authoritarian regimes yet free initiative migration is a powerful factor in social adjustment and the growth of urban populations. Trafficking is a lucrative industry. It is now the fastest growing criminal industry in the world. Globally, it is tied with the illegal arms trade, as the second largest criminal activity, following the drug trade. Human trafficking is the illegal trade in human beings for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor: a modern-day form of slavery. The concept of human trafficking refers to the criminal practice of exploiting human beings by treating them like commodities for profit. Even after being trafficked victims are subjected to long term exploitation. The present article is an attempt to study the anthropological perspectives of socio economic condition, migration and human trafficking in two border villages of Nadia district of West Bengal in India.
cHALLENGES OF COMBATING COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATAION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC,PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Building public demand for the protection of human rights of women and children in remote logging camps in the western Pacific nation of Papua New Guinea has been challenging for the various stakeholders involved including those in the media, legal fraternity and welfare support providers. This papaer examines the social perceptions of human rights within the community and the role of public media advocacy on human rights of women and children in Papua New Guinea.
A three year project was conducted in monitoring the public response towards upholding the human rights of women and children who were commercially sexually exploited in various remote logging camps in western Pacific region. This paper examines the challenges the project identified through the monitoring of the media advocacy component within the media component of the project.
The paper examines issues on rapid assessment of perceptions of ,local communities involved in the project as well as the various stakeholders within the media, legal fraternity and the social services providers.While the logging industry is one of the biggest export revenue earners of the country it is also responsible for many of the indigemnous communities human rights concerns. It is a new and evolving challenge in Papua New Guinea
Mental Agony and Suicide
Suicide is a serious issue of public health. Around one million people worldwide commit suicide each year. In this regard very high rate of suicide is seen at coastal Sagar block in West Bengal, India. In this view the prime enquiry is to find out the cause of high rate of suicide at Sagar block.
Now-a-days suicide is a serious issue of public health. It is increasing rapidly. Most of the countries of the world face this problem. As a recent estimates around one million people worldwide commit suicide each year, with anywhere from 10 million to 20 million suicide attempts annually. In this regard very high rate of suicide has been reported from coastal Sagar block of Sundarban areas in West Bengal, India.
People want to live even for ever but why the people commit suicide from this nice world? There may be so many reasons behind it. The situation, time, place, tension, distress, age, sex, etc. may be varied. But it is true that sometimes the situation may reach to that level that the concerned people can not bear the tension rather face mental agony and to get relief sometime commit suicide. In this concern the questions are- why the high rate of suicide is observed at Sagar block? Is it due to environmental fluctuation or natural calamities which may destroy the life and economy as it is situated at coastal areas? Does it affect the family peace and happiness? Does it create tension, distress and mental agony repeatedly which may cause of suicide to get relief from all the agony? These issues will be examined in this paper.
A revolution movement of Dalits and Matuas for their identities in West Bengal
The liberty of India was achieved on 15th August in 1947 from the dreadful tragedy of partition. A riot was occurred between the Hindus and the Muslims, as a result India become divided into two parts-Pakistan and India. Pakistan for the Muslim native land. And India’s for the Hindus and other communities. This partition was made for the sake for the religion. The religious blindness has made complicated this political partition. This citizen of one land becomes refugee in the other land.
A large number of refugees from Purba Banga (about two cores) are living help less in India. Most of them are belongs to Dalits communities. They have no citizenship, Have no caste certificate, have no identities, no minimum right to acquire education through their mother tongue, then a big movement of Dalits was begin with Matuas.
This paper discusses the concept of Matuas and Dalits movement of West Bengal for their identities and their demands.
Women in Nepal: Rights provided for the Safeguard of Women in Traditional Nepalese Society
Nepal is a principally Hindu nation; and from a religious point of view, the women are considered to be sacred and a part of the God who created life. However, in practice the women are taken as the subordinate members of the society who are merely confined to their duties within the household.
A real fact is that the life expectancy rate of a Nepali woman is much shorter than that of men!
Nepalese women are said to be doing all the house works, feeding kids, cleaning the house, taking care of the live stocks and domestic animals, washing dishes, and doing laundry.
Men don't do dishes and don't do laundry. She also takes care of husband's mother, brothers and sisters. In many cases her works are never rewarded, everyone complains the kids, husband, and the husband's mothers and sisters. While life's all decisions are made by Nepali man, she goes about her daily monotonous life, in her home and backyard, she works harder than men and she dies earlier.
Many of Nepalese girls are the victim of early marriage as early as 8 years old mostly in villages and in rural areas where parents give less education to daughters than sons and that they believe that girls are supposed to be doing household works. But alas! Whenever they get married dowry or called as daijo has to be paid with the daughter. In rural areas dowry thrives while in cities its presence can still be felt in a lesser magnitude. Lots of poor families without their own financial assets get pulled in the holes of loans just to give dowry. Many commit suicide from financial burdens. Dowry in poor countries like Nepal means of acquiring high status. Often families paying hefty dowry gets a boost in his or her status.
Development,Displacement and Tribals: The Indian Situation
The Concept of Development has been defined and evaluated the
policies and acts formed for Tribals of Jharkhand and analyzed that
no effort is made to make them partner in the enterprise of National
Development .The consequence is displacement and violation of human
Jharkhand is a newly formed state in November 2000 . The main aims and
objective of Jharkhand movement was self determination of Adivasis to
be a distinct socio-economic and cultural group to govern themselves
with their traditional self governance system administrating their
resources of sustenance Jal , Jangal and Jameen ( Water , Forest and
Land ) but government encourages huge number of capitalists from all
over the world to set up industries in these areas .
The paper highlights that when development model that requires
large scale displacement is coupled with a government that fails to
respect the legal and Human rights of those being sacrificed for the
"National Good" . The situation becomes downright dangerous and
refuses to respect the law and human rights of the Adivasis
Development, Displacement and Human Security: The Case of Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh
Madhupur forest was reserved by the state declaring the Garo unauthorized dwellers and encroachers. State and the timber predators remained at the back of deforestation while accusing the Garo for the misdeed. Lawsuit is the legal instrument to banish & marginalize the Garo.
Marginality of a population stems from distinct sources among others, poverty and ethnic otherness. In other words social exclusion is structural primarily and agential secondarily. Ironically contemporary Bangladesh is beset with the both that rendered its social fabric exclusionary, given the fact that the country only four decades ago fought a democratic struggle to come out of the clutch of a regime that rejected the popular mandate for ascending into power of a party dominated by the Bengali population. About 2% of the population is ethnic minority at present in which there are dwellers in the plane and hills. Present paper is about those who live in Madhupur forest in Tangalil district. The ethnic people who live there are mainly Garo, a segment of the Indo-Tibetan population living in this part from at least a millennium ago. The kind of social system evolved with them rested on community ownership and management of land that is the forest. Over time a particular rhythm of life surfaced that synchronized nature and culture - in other words the Garo lived along with the Madhupur forest. Agriculture was the mainstay of economic life that was more of the nature of subsistence generation rather commoditization. During the pre-colonial and colonial phases of administration above arrangement of Garo living in Madhupur forest was not disrupted. The whole process got shattered with the onset of Pakistani rule back in 1940's and continued unabated even after Bangladesh was created in early 1970,s.
Security and Development of the Indigenous People in Bangladesh: A Case of Denial and Discrimination
People belonging to different ethnic communities, self-styled indigenous people, are subject to long standing denial and discrimination in Bangladesh. The meaning and application of the age old traditional concept of state focused security is useless for them as the security of the state does not ensure their security.
Bangladesh is a multi-nation country, Bangalees being the dominant group. Others are small nations in terms of population. There are at least 45 ethnic communities living throughout the country.
These ethnic communities, self-styled indigenous people, have perpetually been discriminated and denied their rights. They are divided into two categories, under the indigenous umbrella term, on the basis of their geographic locations. One category is known as 'hill people' as they live in the hilly region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the other as 'plain people' who live on the plain-lands of the country. However, they are equally deprived of their rights irrespective of the ruling regimes starting from the British colonial regime to the present day Bangladesh government via 25 years of Pakistani 'internal colonial rule'.
The state of Bangladesh is currently secure from the external insecurity threats. But this security does not provide any security to the indigenous people, rather hinders their total development. Therefore, it is imperative and a cry of the time that security be conceived as human security and implemented in Bangladesh so that the people of the small ethnic communities in the hilly and plain regions may prosper and develop.
This panel is closed to new paper proposals.