IUAES logoIUAES

Home - Congresses & Inter-Congresses - IUAES2013 Panels

IUAES 2013: Evolving Humanity, Emerging Worlds. 5-10 August 2013.

IUAES 2013 photo banner

IUAES2013 HOME | TRACKS & PANELS | PLENARIES | VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY | TIMETABLE


Evolving humanity, emerging worlds

Manchester, UK; 5th-10th August 2013

(MMM07)

Migration and indigenous peoples

Location University Place 3.212
Date and Start Time 08 Aug, 2013 at 09:00

Convenor

Ajit Kumar Singh (Ranchi University) email
Mail All Convenors

Short Abstract

Economic pressures are the most evident cause of migration of indigenous people. Almost all migratory movements are in some way linked to the economic difficulties faced by indigenous peoples. Cross cultural examination of the status of migrated indigenous people is required.

Long Abstract

How is indigenous migration changing indigenous cultures? Do they lose their identities as indigenous peoples when they leave their traditional lands? Migration of indigenous peoples from settled communities that reside in rural areas can be voluntary or forced, depending on the conditions present at the places of origin. Examples of voluntary migrations are seasonal movements during harvesting periods of workers participating in the cash economy. Some of those communities migrate to jobs in the agricultural, forestry or fishing industries.

Indigenous people are among the most vulnerable groups when natural disaster occurs. The reasons include a greater dependence on natural resources, the remoteness of some of their territories, disenfranchisement of some of the groups from the rest of society, and difficult access to aid and rescue missions. As with other rural and remote communities, some indigenous peoples are at a disadvantage because they lack the necessary expertise or technology to mitigate the effects of natural disasters on their communities.

Diminishing opportunities for economic survival and development in their places of origin are among the most pressing factors pushing indigenous peoples to migrate. Low or nil formal education, language barriers, limited marketable skills for urban employment and inadequate labour laws prevent their economic advancement. Cross- cultural examination of the status of migrated indigenous people is required for future policy making process at the regional level.

This panel is closed to new paper proposals.

Papers

Second generation indigenous

Author: Vicente Javier Arias Gomez (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia UNED)  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

What will be part of the social status of the indigenous descendants who are the grandsons of those families who have been forced to emigrate from their places of origin to other unknown lands where societies are different in their ways of life and also the different ethnic groups.

Long Abstract

Nature is wise and balanced on its natural resources. In the indigenous peoples live in harmony and happiness.

But the man is the sponsor of these advanced companies that destroy the habits of the native peoples with economic objectives. That if you continue this form of exploitation, will transform the earth.

These human beings are forced to abandon their homes and families to obtain a better life full of hope, but this is actually an injustice of human rights the need to scroll to other parts of the world. This is the theme for each day in humanity.

Nature has never been controlled by human beings if studied. The descendants of this indigenous population have difficulties of integration that are the second and third generation. Western society sees as population of third level despite the fact that they were born and have the same rights as the own of these places.

This is the reason why what I'm going to develop a study of the descendants of the natives in their integration painful to them in a globalised world in which thinks that western society is a world of great fortunes and wealth full of opportunities, but in reality it is more that illusion as reality that have to compete with jobs, education, health care in a society at a disadvantage with the rest of the population.

Download PDF of paper

Impact of migration on Indigenous Knowledge System

Author: Ashok Das Gupta (University of North Bengal )  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

People with Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) have the capabilities to provide several Public Services. An indigenous community may be marginalized due to in-migrations or be out-migrated. It may be immigrated or emigrated. Hence, IKS could be altered due to changes in modes of production.

Long Abstract

People with Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) have the capabilities to provide several Public Services that parallel to the Modern systems is equally important. An indigenous community may be marginalized due to in-migrations or be out-migrated. It may be immigrated or emigrated. In both the cases, IKS could be altered due to changes in modes of production.

In a transnational region region of India is Duars region of northern West Bengal state of India. This is actually an included area from Bhutan Himalayas and formerly considered as Buffer.

Ancient trade routes have lost and people could only imagine of their indigenous statehood like Koch Bihar and Kamtapur. Tribal communities there like Mech (Bodo), Rabha, Garo, and Koch have been mostly incorporated into the wider social category of agrarian Rajbanshi caste. Borendri caste group there speaks off their Aryan origin but on to Kashmir-Tibet ways. Nepali speaking Hill Nepalese of Nepal are actually immigrants but recruited in Indian Army. They also construct the labour class in Tea estates along with Adivasi people of Dravidian-ProtoAustraloid origin from Central India.

A new form of IKS has grown up locally that contains identity movement, human shield in this border territory and multiculturalism. For that the British rule in India obviously got the credit. Mutual understanding between IKS and Modernity can really fulfill the goal. We cannot consider IKS being a part confined in mode of production, but the structure and the super-structure (or cognition) that speaks openly in favour of culture to multiculturalism.

Download PDF of paper

Identity choices among second generation indigenous Mexican migrants in California

Author: Adriana Cruz-Manjarrez (Universidad de Colima)  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

This paper explores the social perceptions of ethnic and racial identity of second-generation indigenous Mexican migrants in California.

Long Abstract

Everyday throughout Los Angeles, second-generation Yalálag Zapotecs negotiate and reframe their sense of identification as American, Mexican, Oaxaqueños, and Yalaltecos. They grow up listening to their parents that they are Americans citizens of Mexican descent because they are born in the United States and have U.S. passports. Instead of learning the language of their parents—the Zapotec, they are raised speaking Spanish and English. And, because they look physically like the Indios Oaxaqueños (Oaxacan Indians) and maintain certain identifying cultural practices of the Yalálag Zapotec people, mestizo Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans discriminate against them.

In this paper, I explore how second-generation Yalalag Zapotecs and the 1.5 generation (those born in Oaxaca, Mexico, but raised in Los Angeles, California) handle these definitions on their multiple identities and what it means for them to be a Zapotec born in the United States. To approach to these questions, I focus on the perceptions, beliefs, every day practices, and experiences that inform their sense of identity in terms of nationality, indigenous ethnicity, assimilation into Mexican and American identities, and the socially constructed notions of racial identification.

Factors of negative attitude toward labour ethno-migrants in contemporary Russia

Author: Elena Okladnikova (Sankt-Petersburg engineering and economy university)  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

Today Russia has become the state of immigrants from Central Asia, Transcaucasia, Ukrane, Moldova. This paper examines factors increasing negative stereotypes of mass conscience toward labour ethno-migrants form Central Asia, Transcaucasia, Ukrane, Moldova in contemporary Russia.

Long Abstract

Negative geterostereotypes concerning are lined up in the citizens minds of contemporary Russian big cities hierarchically. Least favourable stereotypes concern labour ethno-migrants from Central Asia, most positive stereotypes concern labor ethno-migrants from Ukraine and Moldova. Citizens attitude towards labour ethno-migrants is shaped under the influence of three factors. These factors are not realized by mass consciousness but effect public opinion as a block of stereotype ideas: 1) actions of authorities representing themselves as liberal-democrats but in practice lobbying the laws maintaining inequality of labor ethno-migrants (in juridical, trade and social spheres); 2) operating influence of Media: negative geterostereotypes are often implanted in the minds of respondents with the help of the language of animosity: literary clichés with negative connotations and generalization: "guest worker","tadjik-narco dealler", "Caucasian robber", "non-legal migrant", "Muslim terrorist"; 3) background phobias and feelings of respondents (unfulfilled national idea, pragmatic orientation of mass consciousness, social "asthenic syndrome" expressed in political nihilism). I suppose that Positive political will can help to solve the problem of conflict and negative attitude of the citizens in contemporary Russian cities toward labour ethno-migrants. There are no dangerous nations, but there are dangerous situations which are the manifestation of Nature, Ethnic and History laws. Most dangerous situations in cross-cultural and ethno affairs spring from political conditions.

People's Trajectories and Spaces in Uganda: Converting Life-world in Lake Albert

Author: Noriko Tahara (Shitennoji University)  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

I will focus on one multi-ethnic village located on the east side of Lake Albert. I will present the migration pattern and people's micro-level strategies to construct their life-world while they have been affected by heterogeneity and diversity of language and economic activity.

Long Abstract

Fish and water, the natural resources of Lake Albert in Uganda, attract people from a wide range of areas—West Nile, the DRC, and Rwanda. I will focus on one multi-ethnic village, called R village, a fishing community located on the east side of the lake and belongs to Hoima District, the centre of the Nyoro Kingdom; hence, the locals predominantly constitute the Bagungu of Bunyoro descent. Presently, however, 80% of the people are Alur who migrate from West Nile and the DRC. and have multiple living bases during their lifetime. Moreover some family of Bararoo and Banyrwanda (cattle keeper) migrated from Kasese in Uganda and Rwanda If we trace their trajectory, we find that there are some patterns of migration.

From the migration patterns I am able to identify two social factors, other than economic activity. (1) Attraction of migrant labour to Buganda in the 1930s for the purpose of cotton & coffee plantation, and (2) Evacuation of people due to wars: the Mulele War of 1964, the Museveni Battle of 1984-85, and the Civil War of 1997-2002 in the DRC. All these migrations were motivated by the desire for survival, in order to pursue "sauce and space".

Although there is inequality of interface between the Bagungu, the Bararoo, the Banyarwanda and the Alur, translation is always demanded by people attending the public meeting. Here we can see the germination of interface between different ethnic groups, as they try to understand each other. I would like to say that this kind of cooperation, which appears through necessity, is a feature of this life-world. This is the occasional cooperative construction of spaces where people are getting together.

Download PDF of paper

The Impact of Indigenous Migration on Language Maintenance: The Case of Yucatec Maya, Mexico

Author: Eriko Yamasaki (University of Bonn)  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

The urbanization has caused cultural changes in Yucatecan society. Among others, the indigenous migration seems to factor into the proportional decline of Maya speakers. This paper focuses on the impact of indigenous cityward migration on the language contact situation of Maya and Spanish.

Long Abstract

Yucatec Maya is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán peninsula. Counting more than 800.000 speakers, Yucatec Maya is generally considered a "safe" language. This perception, however, is not as self-evident as the high number of speakers suggests, given that the percentage of Maya speakers in relation to the general population as well as the rate of intergenerational language transmission is declining. Besides the dominant use of the Spanish language in public domains, the indigenous migration towards urban environments seems to factor into the proportional decline of Maya speakers.

Due to the agricultural crisis and the construction of the tourist zone along the Caribbean coast since the 1970's, growing urban centres such as Mérida and Cancún have been attracting Maya speaking migrants from rural areas of the peninsula. This process of urbanization has caused socio-economic and cultural changes in the once predominantly agricultural Yucatecan society. This paper focuses on the impact of these changes on the sociolinguistic situation of Yucatec Maya. The indigenous cityward migration affects the linguistic situation of the peninsula not only by causing urban migrants to abandon their language. The orientation of many Maya speakers towards the urban life might factor into the devaluation of Yucatec Maya and decreasing intergenerational language transmission even in rural areas.

Drawn from preliminary results of my fieldwork in Mérida and Cancún, this paper aims to show the significance of the indigenous migration for the language contact situation of Yucatec Maya and Spanish .

Cultural survival of the self determined, mobile Narikkurawar in Tirunelveli, South India

Author: Thangam Muthu Sudalaiyandi (Sarah Tucker College, South India)  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

Narikkurawar are the nomadic people who live in many suburbs cities of Tamilnadu. It is believed that they migrate from the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. They strive hard to preserve their tribal identities in the midst of modern globalized society. They search for greater autonomy and even secession in order to save their distinct culture.

Long Abstract

Narikkurawar are the nomadic minority group of people who live in many suburbs cities of Tamil Nadu. "Nari" means fox in Tamil language. It is believed that the Narikkurawar of Tamil Nadu especially in Tirunelveli district originate from the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat. They also claim themselves as the offshoot of another migrant nomad from Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu known as "Kattu Nayakkar." In Northern India they are called as "Gulgulya" (means nomad). Hakki-Bigees of Karnataka ("Hakki" means bird), Nakla-vala and Petla-vala in Andhra Pradesh are also considered as same group. "Nakla" and "Petla" stand for fox and bird respectively. Their nomenclatures are directly associated with nature and especially birds and animals. They have all the characteristics of the nomadic tribes.

In the caste structured Tamil society the government has enlisted them in the Most Backward Class (MBC). The mere existence of minority Narikkurawar among the majorities is not always peaceful. Being nomads, they are unable to enjoy all the benefits enjoyed by other caste groups. They are sidelined and marginalized. They consistently claim to be under the category of tribes. These self-determined nomads strive hard to preserve their tribal identities in the midst of modern, cosmopolitan, commercial and globalized society. As a result they search for greater autonomy and even secession in order to save their distinct tradition, culture and identities.

This article in its final form will provide a comprehensive account of the problems faced by the Narikkurawar in the chosen area and suggest reasonable solutions.

Brazil's indigenous population in urban areas: a case study of São Paulo and São Gabriel da Cachoeira

Authors: Bárbara Estanislau (Unicamp)  email
Alessandra Traldi (Unicamp)  email
Ricardo Dagnino  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

In this paper we seek to understand the growth process of the self-declared indigenous population in Brazil and its relation to the increase of the brazilian population in urban areas. To do so, we will examine the profile of these populations in the cities of São Paulo and São Gabriel da Cachoeira, which have the largest absolute number of indigenous people in urban areas according to the last 2010 Census.

Long Abstract

The self-declared indigenous population in Brazil is of 817,963 people, according to the Brazilian 2010 Census. In 2000, this population totaled 734,127, which within South America, corresponds to 4,16%. It is interesting to note that the average annual rate of the indigenous population growth between 1990 and 2000 was 10,8%, while the population in the whole country grew about 1,6% per year. Between 2000 and 2010 the indigenous population continues to grow, but at a much slower rate of 1,1% per year, while the whole country grew 1,2% per year. Many reasons can explain the expressive growth that occurred in this period: i) changes in the race/color question in the Brazilian Census; and ii) favorable conditions for the self-declaration as indigenous, mainly because of the recognition of rights by race / color. It is also important to emphasize that during this period Brazilian urbanization was also growing, as were as the number of indigenous people living in urban areas. What remains to be understood is the profile of the indigenous population in urban areas, both through the studied period (1991, 2000 and 2010), and the cities that this population lives. For that, we will use data of the Brazilian Census of 1991, 2000 and 2010 analyzing the brazilian cities that have the biggest number of self-declared indigenous people in urban areas: São Gabriel da Cachoeira and São Paulo. Finally, in this paper we will investigate, through the years, the characteristics of the self-declared indigenous population in Brazil and their relation with urban areas.

Migration and Tuberculosis In A State Of Jharkhand

Author: Abhishek Chauhan (Ranchi University)  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

In certain areas of Jharkhand (India), poverty, consequent malnutrition, migration of people in search of better life have given rise to diseases like Tuberculosis (TB).

Migration has not only created problem among the people regarding livelihood generating activities, but this migration has made many impact on the people belonging to various groups community and tribe in Jharkhand. As migration has been always understood as situation in which people move from one place to another in search of bread and butter .Under this research the migration of people from one place to another has been shown that people are getting infected to a disease called Tuberculosis. The samples have been taken from Ramakrishna Mission Sanatorium, Ranchi Jharkhand. In this research the patients who migrated from Jharkhand state to neighboring state got infected to a disease TB.

Long Abstract

In certain areas of Jharkhand (India), poverty, consequent malnutrition, migration of people in search of better life have given rise to diseases like Tuberculosis (TB).

Migration has not only created problem among the people regarding livelihood generating activities, but this migration has made many impact on the people belonging to various groups community and tribe in Jharkhand. As migration has been always understood as situation in which people move from one place to another in search of bread and butter .Under this research the migration of people from one place to another has been shown that people are getting infected to a disease called Tuberculosis. The samples have been taken from Ramakrishna Mission Sanatorium, Ranchi Jharkhand. In this research the patients who migrated from Jharkhand state to neighboring state got infected to a disease TB. The people who migrate are forced to work in hazardous industries, factories and brickfields for their earnings. Some patients have also mentioned that if employer comes to know that an individual is suffering from tuberculosis then they were removed from the job without any reason. In this situation an individual was forced to return to their houses for treatment. About more than 400 samples of male tuberculosis patients admitted in R.K. Mission Sanatorium has been taken. Therefore most important concerns in the field of Jharkhand health is the growing risks of tuberculosis.

Problem of Migration among the indigenous people of Jharkhand State of India

Author: Sabir Hussain (Jharkhand Tribal Welfare Research Institute)  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

SHORT ABSTRACT

PROBLEMS OF MIGRATION AMONG THE INDIGINOUS PEOPLE OF JHARKHAND STATE OF INDIA

Dr. Sabir Hussain

State co-ordinator, M TALL Cell, JTWRI

Ranchi,Jharkhand,India

Abstract:-

The main aim of the present paper is to highlight the migration among the tribal people of Jharkhand.

For this collection of data made through a well prepared schedule and intensive schedule.

The paper highlighted period of migration, motivation force, place of migration and problem of migration.

Long Abstract

LONG ABSTRACT

PROBLEMS OF MIGRATION AMONG THE INDIGINOUS PEOPLE OF JHARKHAND STATE OF INDIA

Dr. Sabir Hussain

State co-ordinator, M TALL Cell, JTWRI

Ranchi,Jharkhand,India

Abstract:-

The main aim of the present paper is to highlight the migration among the tribal people of Jharkhand.

For this collection of data made through a well prepared schedule and intensive schedule.

The paper highlighted period of migration, motivation force, place of migration and problem of migration.

Tribals are backward and exploited lot, in comparison to other ethnic groups of our country. Our tribal brethren, reside in such regions where one has to face a number of problems in going and coming. There is lack of means of communication in tribal areas. They have to face the problems drinking water. Even after 55 years of Independence, they have to use the dirty water of pond or tanks for cooking and drinking purpose. Even today, majority of tribals are struggling for their existence, as their economy in existence oriented. Most of them do not have the concept of saving.

Objectives:

The main objective of the present paper is to highlight tribal migration, middle men, problem of migration, motivation force and where and why they migrate.

Collection of data made through a well prepared schedule and intensive interviews.

Hypothesis:

1. Lack of avenues for employment is responsible for migration.

2. Economically backwards only tribal migrate.

3. Promises extended to the tribal labour by the contractors prior to migration are hardly kept.

4.

Migration Pattern of Tribal Commmunity and Impact of JTDP in checking Migration.

Author: Manoj Sinha (JTDS)  email
Mail All Authors

Short Abstract

The main objective of the present paper is to highlight migration pattern of indigenous community of Jharkhand state and the impact of Jharkhand Tribal Development programme facilitated by IFAD, World Food Programmes and Govt. of Jharkhand, Welfare Department.

Long Abstract

Introduction:-

The main objective of the present paper is to highlight migration pattern of indigenous community of Jharkhand state and the impact of Jharkhand Tribal Development programme facilitated by IFAD, World Food Programmes and Govt. of Jharkhand, Welfare Department. Migration or shifting of the peoples have been universal on the earth in space and time, but there have also been migrations or transmissions of cultural objects and ideas which frequently have little relation with the former and these may be termed cultural drifts.

Objectives:-

To study migration in tribals along with its social and health problems. It will also provide the vital statistics of age, sex, literacy, migration, income, expenditure, economy etc. These fifugres would be helpful in projection the construction of the population and several changes accompanying there.

The present study is however as would be emphasized, pointed to the problems of seasonal or temporary migration and to the migrant workers only. However, along with the male migrant data would be collected about the female migrant from the same family of informant.

10% migrated tribal families or individuals in different blocks of West Singhbhum, Ranchi and Saraikela Kharsawan districts of Jharkhand will be selected as sample for the study. Data will be collected specially from those villages where action programmes of JTDS in progress already started.

Collection of data will be made through a well prepared schedule and intensive interviews.

The villages where programmmes are running by JTDP of the districts of Ranchi, West Singhbhum and Saraikela Kharsawan of Jharkhand State.

This panel is closed to new paper proposals.

Sponsors

Wenner-Gren Visit Manchester ASA RAI Manchester University