Evolving humanity, emerging worlds
Manchester, UK; 5th-10th August 2013
Urbanization and reproductive health (IUAES Commission on Urban Anthropology)
Location University Place 3.205
Date and Start Time 06 Aug, 2013 at 09:00
There is an association between women reproductive risk factors and urbanization. Reproductive health is an area of concern in maternal mortality, sexually transmitted diseases and the treatment of infertility. It could be slowed down if the initiative of care starts from the adolescent girls.
In 2007 the United Nations estimated that half of the world's population was living in urban areas followed by the continuous increase in the proportion of the global population. There is a strong evidence of the association between women reproductive risk factors (menstrual and ovulatory disorders etc.) and urbanization in South East Asian countries, which results into the decline in fertility rate. Moreover, the rise of non-communicable diseases along reproductive problems causes enormous health threat in particular among women from low or middle income countries. Factors like sedentary lifestyle, shift from course to high caloric food, irregular intake of food and inclination towards the modern gadgets affect women from the menarche to the menopause. The government and nongovernmental agencies have been engaged in a positive effort to provide efficient services to women through proper counseling at the adolescent level and treating them through proper medication. 'Women's rights to reproductive and sexual health' is another important area of concern for reducing maternal mortality, protection from sexually transmitted diseases and providing appropriate service to the treatment of infertility through assisted reproduction. By 2030, a larger number of people will live in small and medium-sized towns; cities will undergo socioeconomic transitions which may contribute to further complications in the reproductive health parameters of women. Such a pattern could be slowed down if the initiative starts from below through proper care and guidance to the adolescents girls.
This panel is closed to new paper proposals.
Urbanization and disease - a new challenge
The paper describes the effect of urbanization on female reproductive health. Our finding reveals that the reproductive health disorders of female patients is attributable to low protein diet, estrogenous food, irregular food habits has association with the fertility and menstrual complications.
The paper describes the effect of urbanization on female reproductive health which is due to the mismatch between traditional (rural) and urban lifestyle. Traditional belief and practices increasingly overlap with adoption of urban culture, especially regarding living conditions, education and abuse of electronic gadgets. Reports suggest that the 'social and economic factors' could also influence the individual's life. Our findings based on research in a government hospital in south Kolkata reveal that the reproductive health disorders of female patients brought about by urbanization is attributable to sub fertility and menstrual complications. The paper also hypothesizes the influence of low protein diet, estrogenous food, irregular food habits, and lesser awareness about health on such complications. In the concluding part, the paper stresses the importance of ethnographic studies on adolescent girls to arrest the trend.
Impact of Urbanization on the Reproductive Health: With reference to six semi-urban population of northeast India
Reproductive health data of semi-urban population indicate that expecting mothers face induced abortion due to improper antenatal check up and low intake of Iron Folic Acid. Prejudices and indifference could play hindrance to access the medical amenities.
Reproductive health data from six semi-urban population groups (2050 women) of northeast India were obtained to portray a microcosm of health seeking behaviour in this region. Our assessment of health services for safe motherhood and its utilization indicates that expecting mothers have very limited access to reproductive health facilities. One-fourth of mothers were not administered even a single dose of Tetanus Toxoid throughout gestational period and only one-third of them reported intake of Iron Folic Acid at pregnancy. Almost half of them did not avail any antenatal check up and post natal check-ups were done only in cases of post-pregnancy complicacies. Child deliveries at hospitals and clinics are lesser. Induced abortion is seen as a major contributor of prenatal mortality. Educational level, occupational status, prejudices and indifference are among the major determinants of poor access to prevailing medical amenities.
Effect of urbanization on quality of care
The NRHM (National rural health mission) aims to provide affordable, quality health care to all the people especially the poor. Even though the NRHM has increased the quantity of health care services and improved the service delivery, the quality of services delivered is still an issue. The improved quality of service will result in better utilization of health facilities and there by result in better out comes of the health indicators.
The National Rural Health Mission has made a paradigm shift in health care delivery in the country. Under NRHM there was a rapid expansion of infrastructure, increased Manpower, greater flexibility in operation, improved financial management, and increased budgetary allocation led to considerable expansion of service delivery. The access to the service has improved to a great extent.
Quality Assurance is a component under NRHM implementation plan. However that plan does not have definite execution road map. In some of the states the QA program is implemented by development partners. Still, Quality assurance in the health care facilities and health care service delivery is still in its infant stage at many states. A full-fledged system of quality assurance which includes mentoring of the health facilities has to be developed.
. Govt of West Bengal proposes to establish a model of supportive supervision/mentoring for Quality Assurance of Health care delivery in the 44 high focus facilities distributed in all districts. The identified facilities will be divided into two groups- Rural and Urban , depending on absence or presence of municipal authority.
The objective of the Mentoring Program is to provide Quality assured services to those who are attending the respective health care facilities to impact on the following parameters:.
1. Still births
2. Early Neonatal Deaths
3. Maternal deaths
4. Case fatality rate due to PPH, Eclampsia and sepsis
Information service for birth defects prevention in developing countries
To explore a new service model through the internet service and management of birth defects and compared it with the old one.
To establish birth defects primary prevention information platform, explore the birth defects prevention information service model in developing country. According to the birth defects prevention process, we set up a birth defects prevention information service and management system. The system was used by the doctors and the couples who are preparing pregnant. The birth defects prevention information platform gave information service to different user. The information service solve many problems faced by the traditional service, such as the scarcity of medical resources, the regional disequilibrium and population migration, etc. The information service mode is more suitable for birth defects prevention.
Pregnancy beyond menopause in Kolkata, India
The present paper is based on data of 480 menopause women desire to have a baby through assisted reproductive technologies whose outcome of pregnancy was 38 in number followed by 10 live births. The social acceptance of such menopausal pregnancy was very low despite the technological success.
The present paper is based on data collected between 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 from five IVF clinics in Kolkata. I used questionnaires and telephonic interviews with 480 women, between the age of 47 to 56 years, seeking IVF with Egg donation. Of the 480 women, 124 patients were selected for IVF protocol. The outcome of pregnancy was 38 in number followed by 10 live births. The remaining pregnancy was discontinued due to antenatal complications. Although the data show that many postmenopausal women desire to have a baby through assisted reproductive technologies, the pregnancy rate comparable negatively with younger age groups. The data also show that social acceptance of postmenopausal pregnancy was very low.
Post-menopausal woman - a right to motherhood
The assisted reproductive technologies enables postmenopausal women has raised a challenge to re-evaluate the human rights for mothering their child. The paper focuses on the decision-making process to exercise such rights with the assistance of sperm, donated ovum and ‘receptacle’ (womb).
The conceptual framework of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) as a viable option for infertile couple to deliver a live birth is now under the purview of ethics, raising a challenge to re-evaluate the human rights of postmenopausal women for mothering their child with the assistance of three components e.g. sperm, donated ovum and 'receptacle' (womb). ART is an instrument for caring for the emotions of infertile couple, to delete the social stigma. However, it has generated debate against the justification of using this technology along with certain 'non-medical considerations' for post menopausal woman, thus raising ethical issues. The paper focuses on the decision-making process of postmenopausal woman to exercise her rights for ensuring her 'biological progeny' and on the IVF clinic's procedure to match its interest with her demand of the specific service in understanding the nature of rights.
Postmenopausal pregnancies: some ethical issues
Postmenopausal pregnancies have been controversial as ethical factors weigh heavily in the decision to have a child of postmenopausal women. Present paper intends to explore such issues to understand ethical and other issues behind postmenopausal pregnancies.
A woman's reproductive age, once a dictate of nature, now has been challenged and artificially extended by using donated oocytes fertilized in vitro and transferred to their uteri. Postmenopausal pregnancies have been and will remain controversial as there are overlapping interests of national, religious, medical, legal, social, cultural as well as ethical views. Medical, psychological, and ethical factors weigh heavily in the decision to have a child of postmenopausal women.
Again the perspectives are of different in nature-from prospective mother's side as well as to be born child's rights. Postmenopausal pregnancies also widen the scope of reproductive options and challenge conventional ideas and theories about motherhood, pregnancy, childbirth, parenting as well as evolutionary perspective.
Present paper intends to explore such issues and discuss accordingly to understand ethical and other issues behind postmenopausal pregnancies.
Women's perceptions of reproductive illness in Manipur
Perception of reproductive illness by the women themselves is important in understanding the women's reproductive health in a particular society. It also indicates the possibility of taking perception as a tool for measuring reproductive illness.
Perception of reproductive illness by the women themselves is important in understanding the women's reproductive health in a particular society. It also indicates the possibility of taking perception as a tool for measuring reproductive illness. Though women do not have a "germ theory" to explain their reproductive illness they have a sense of illness pathology. Reproductive illness perceived by women is related to physical symptoms and situations in a network of meanings and different meanings are socially generated to articulate their experiences.
An illness is the meaning that women give to health and refers to a person's perception and experiences of certain socially disvalued status. The meaning of health needs to be recognised for achieving an analytical understanding of the process of production of health as a basis for any realistic and comprehensive effort to improve health condition in the community. Thus, it underscores the need to incorporate women's perception of their illness to design a culturally sensitive health programme. This paper is an endeavour to bring into light how women in Manipur perceive "women's illness" such as vaginal discharge, menstrual problem etc., their perceptions of the seriousness of different women's illnesses.
This panel is closed to new paper proposals.