Global justice and peace building in an unequal society: internal armed conflicts and indigenous people of the highland Andes
Hiromi Hosoya (Seikei University)
Paper short abstract:
Anthropology helps contribute to the emerging theme of global justice through onsite research methods that consider social diversity. In this context, I analyze the different articulations of justice among the international community, nation-states, and local groups.
Paper long abstract:
Global justice has been discussed in many interdisciplinary ways, and while the international community seeks a global standard of justice, the diversity and contextualization of justice have also been revealed. Further complicating the concept of justice, the international community's principal unit has been the nation, despite national societies consisting of various groups among whom relations are often unequal. Therefore, I examine the different articulations of justice in the international community, a nation, and local groups by analyzing the Peruvian peace-building process after internal armed conflicts. Peru's violent period began with an armed rebellion of the Peruvian Communist Party-Shining Path (PCP-SL), who followed Mao's strategy: the rural areas will surround urban areas. However, this foreign strategy faced the vernacular uniqueness of Peruvian society, where indigenous people are identified as "peasants (campesinos)." Subsequently, both the national army and the PCP-SL conducted massive massacres of rural inhabitants. According to the 2013 Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of Peru, almost 70,000 people died or disappeared from 1980 to 2000, of which, remarkably, 75 percent were indigenous language speakers. However, no indigenous people were nominated as TRC commissioners, and they were excluded from the peace-building process. Now, the former Emergency Declared Areas have again been declared as such. Postcolonial conditions, such as racism, are also important factors in this result. Consequently, I examine how justice differs amongst various groups and instances during the peace-building process and also highlight how this justice often appeared contradictory.Download the full paper
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