This workshop is to concentrate on small ethnic groups and nations in unifying Europe that continue to strive to negotiate, create and/or defend their ethnic identity in spite of not having their own state. In some countries they have gained legal status as an ethnic minority, while in others they struggle to be recognized as such to this day. On the one hand these groups can support their efforts by the notion of cultural diversity as a current European value. On the other hand their struggles are still framed by a persistent and partly unreflected image of the nation state as the only legitimate basis of the world order. The papers may discuss contradictory concepts within which processes of ethnomobilization take place. They may question the reason or purpose of such processes in the light of current word crisis. But they may consider prospective solutions in preserving and developing the culture of stateless ethnic groups as well.