Accepted paper:

Eritrea: the National Service and the Warsai-Yikaalo Campaign as Forced Labour


Gaim Kibreab (London South Bank University)

Paper short abstract:

Paper long abstract:

The aim of the paper is to discuss critically the extent to which the open-ended national service and its concomitant the Warsai-Yikaalo Campaign constitute forced labour and to evaluate their social and economic impact. It also examines in how far they can be seen as direct or indirect causes of the recent refugee flows from Eritrea.

panel B4 & B5
In and out of Eritrea: returnees, refugees, and renegades