'Modernity' was central ! to late colonial as well as independent Africa. Linked to the notion of 'development', the project of modernity was of crucial relevance during the period of decolonisation, when departing colonial governments, African nationalists, expatriate business, African middle classes, and newly independent African states all mobilised images of modernity in support of their respective agendas. This panel examines the questions of what were these images of modernity? why were they so widely shared? how were they produced, consumed, and interpreted? and: what happened to the project of modernity following the initial independence period?