(P08)
Economic relationships between Europe and the Turkish homeland from the Early Modern age to the 20th century
Location Sala 82, Edifício B2, Piso 1
Date and Start Time 17 July, 2015 at 09:30
Sessions 1

Convenors

  • Giampaolo Conte (Roma Tre University) email
  • Fabrizio Filioli Uranio (Università di Pisa) email
  • Alessandro Albanese Ginammi (European University of Rome) email

Mail All Convenors

Chair Gaetano Sabatini
Discussant Manfredi Merluzzi (Università Roma Tre)

Short Abstract

The panel would like to analyze and compare in a long-term perspective selected examples of economic, trade and financial relationships between Europe and the Ottoman Empire/Republic of Turkey in the Early Modern Age and in 19th-20th centuries.

Long Abstract

The economic relationship between Europe and the Turkish homeland have been a constant feature since the Middle Ages. With the increase of European Mercantilism the economic linkages between western and eastern banks situated in the Mediterranean region followed an upward trend. Although the military struggle often reduced the connections between the banks, economic relationships flourished more than political.

The first topic regards the political struggle between the Habsburg Empire and France in 16th century. The latter compelled to approach the Ottoman forces in order to counterbalance the Habsburg power, which formed alliance with the Genovese fleet. The unlikely French-Ottoman cooperation paved the way for the beginning of the Capitulation system which gave important trade benefits.

The second topic regards the 19th century when the European Power started controlling the Ottoman economy thanks to the sign of a series of trade-free agreement with the West. In light of this, and after the Ottoman bankruptcy in 1875-76, the European powers took control both of the Ottoman Central Bank and Ottoman Public finance through the Council of Administration of Ottoman Public Debt until the outbreak of the First World War.

The third essay topic the beginning of Turkish Republic to "westernizing" its economic, political and social structures. Having entered into very close cooperation with Western Europe in the political field, it was therefore only natural for Turkey to complete this in the economic area. Thus, on September 12, 1963, the Ankara Agreement was signed: an Agreement Creating An Association Between The Republic of Turkey and the fledgling European Economic Community.

This panel is closed to new paper proposals.

Papers

The Franco-Ottoman alliance in the 16th century amidst geopolitics and trade

Author: Fabrizio Filioli Uranio (Università di Pisa)  email

Short Abstract

During the 16th century the cooperation between France and the Ottoman Empire was ratified through a series of agreements that brought major economic and commercial advantages for the extremely Christian King.

Long Abstract

Andrea Doria's move to take up the command of Charles V's galleys in 1528 marked the end of Francis I's dream of having a fleet under his orders, able to break the Catholic monarchy's naval hegemony within the Mediterranean. This event was ill-fated for the ruler of the House Valois, not only from a geopolitical viewpoint as regards control of the route from Spain to the Kingdoms of Southern Italy, but also because Doria, in addition to his experience as an admiral, made available his own family's coffers and those of the most important, Genoese, noble family societies in his capacity as asentista of the Hapsburgs. This situation pushed Francis I to seek an alliance with the other great Mediterranean Empire - the Ottoman Empire - in order to find an ally that could guarantee protection at sea from the Spanish galleys. In this regard it is suffice to recall the role of Khayr al-Dīn Barbarossa and the port base of Toulon granted him by the king. At the same time said ally also had to be strategically important as a commercial partner in order to open up the monopoly of traffic in this neighbouring Eastern area to France through the port of Marseille. This led to the signing of various agreements and a strategic alliance that only came to an end with Napoleon.

The European control over the Ottoman finances (1863-1914)

Author: Giampaolo Conte (Roma Tre University)  email

Short Abstract

Analyzing the European control both over the banking sector and public finance through the Imperial Ottoman Bank and the Council of Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt from 1863 to the outbreak of the First World War.

Long Abstract

Once integrated the Ottoman Empire in the world economic system, the economic relationship between Europeans and the Ottomans became tighter largely benefitting the European nations. The up-ward trend of the Ottoman indebtedness for allowing the growing state budget expenditures was a strict trouble for the Ottoman government. Started contracting foreign loans to sustain the war against Russia during the Crimean War (1853-1856) the Sublime Porte discovered how much easier was getting money from the international market instead of reforming the State or increasing tax-burden. By doing so, the huge Ottoman public deficit spending had been a constant feature since the 1854. The creation of the Imperial Ottoman Bank in 1863, under the supervision of a French and British committee, gave to the Ottoman government a new tool in order to increase the possibility to get money from international investors. With the function of central, investment and commercial bank, the new financial institution tried gathering around the financial business of the Ottoman Empire under its guidance. Besides the new bank institution, the Ottoman public budget deficit did not stop ramping up. In 1875-76, the Ottoman Empire went to bankruptcy. After the Congress of Berlin in 1878 and in accordance with the Ottoman Government in 1881, the Council of Administration of Ottoman Public Debt was established with the aim of managing some State revenues in order to allow the repayment of the debt.

The Ankara Agreement of 1963

Author: Alessandro Albanese Ginammi (European University of Rome)  email

Short Abstract

My presentation will analyze the contents of the Ankara Agreement, both as a turning point in Europe-Turkey relations, and which still constitutes the legal basis of the economic association between Turkey and the EU today.

Long Abstract

From the 19th century, Turkey began "westernising" its economic, political and social structures. Following the First World War and the proclamation of the Republic in 1923, Turkey has closely aligned itself with the West becoming a founding member of the United Nations, a member of NATO, the Council of Europe, the OECD and an associate member of the Western European Union. Having entered into very close cooperation with Western Europe in the political field, it was therefore only natural for Turkey to complete this in the economic area. Thus, on September 12 1963, the Ankara Agreement was signed: an agreement creating an association between the Republic of Turkey and the fledgling European Economic Community.

My presentation will analyze the contents of the Ankara Agreement, that still constitutes the legal basis of the Association between Turkey and the EU today.

This panel is closed to new paper proposals.