P02
Imagineering the past: the (mis)uses of anthropology and archaeology in tourism

Convenors:
Noel B. Salazar (University of Leuven)
Chair:
Jackie Waldren (University of Oxford)
Discussant:
Nelson Graburn (University of California, Berkeley)
Location:
Wills 3.30
Start time:
8 April, 2009 at 14:30
Session slots:
2

Short abstract:

This panel presents empirical case studies that critically analyze how (often outdated) anthropological and archaeological knowledge is (mis)used by tourism stakeholders to create easily sellable interpretations of heritage and, in the process, transforming local peoples' lives.

Long abstract:

In a bid to obtain a piece of the lucrative global tourism pie, destinations worldwide are trying to play up their local distinctiveness. This is sometimes done by borrowing from traditional ethnology an ontological and essentialist vision of exotic cultures, conceived as static entities with clearly defined characteristics. Ideas of old-style colonial anthropology and archaeology - objectifying, reifying, homogenizing, and naturalizing peoples - are widely (mis)used in international tourism by individuals and organizations staking claims of identity and cultural belonging on imagined notions of place and locality. Ironically, this is happening at a time when anthropologists and archaeologists alike prefer more constructivist approaches to human heritage, taking it for granted that cultures and societies were never passive, bounded and homogeneous entities. Of course, academic writings (often outdated ones) are only one source of inspiration that shape tourism imaginaries of peoples and places, but they are an underestimated and under-researched one. While there is a growing literature on how fieldworkers engage with tourism, at their research sites or on a theoretical level, there has been little systematic investigation of how archaeological and anthropological knowledge is (mis)used, à la carte, by tourism stakeholders to produce easily sellable interpretations of heritage (and, in the process, transforming local peoples' lives). This panel presents empirical case studies that critically analyze which aspects of the two intertwined disciplines are used in tourism to create nostalgic essentializing imagery of so-called authentic traditions and cultures and what the ascribed and self-identified roles and responsibilities of scholars are in these processes.